Treatments Statistics Causes Symptoms Diagnosis CANCER TYPES


The colon and rectum form the major part of the large intestine, spanning about 5 feet or 1.5 meters. Distinct sections are named based on the movement of food through the digestive tract. The proximal colon encompasses the ascending and transverse colon, while the distal colon includes the descending and sigmoid colon.

The colon’s role in digestion involves absorbing salt and water from food after it passes through the small intestine. The waste is stored in the rectum until it’s expelled through the anus during a bowel movement.



Colon cancer, or colorectal cancer, arises when cells in the large intestine or rectum undergo uncontrolled growth, forming cancerous cells.

Colorectal cancer develops when healthy cells or precancerous polyps undergo genetic mutations, leading to the continuous uncontrollable multiplication of colon cells. It ranks as the third most diagnosed cancer in the United States.


In the early stages, polyps develop in the colon’s lining and may eventually become cancerous. There are two categories:

  • Non-neoplastic polyps: Typically noncancerous.
  • Neoplastic polyps: Can potentially become cancerous.

Early detection is critical, as small, benign polyps can take years to grow and transform.

In the early stages, there are often no symptoms, which is why regular screening and early detection are key.

When found in the early stages before spreading, the 5-year survival rate can be as high as 90%. Sadly, only 4 out of 10 are usually found at the early stage. An early diagnosis increases the odds of a better outcome.

Most colon cancers and colorectal cancers are preventable.


Factors such as familial history, medical conditions, and lifestyle can contribute to colon cancer. Addressing these risk factors is vital in prevention and early detection.

The table below lists the different categories of polyps.

Non-neoplastic Polyps

Neoplastic Polyps

Hyperplastic polyps

Adenomas polyps

Inflammatory polyps

Sessile serrated polyps (SSP)

Hamartomatous polyps




Regular screening tests are essential for detecting abnormalities, particularly in asymptomatic individuals. Adults aged 45-75 are advised to undergo routine colorectal cancer screenings. Various tests are available, including stool tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography, and imaging.

  • Colonoscopy: This procedure is instrumental in identifying and removing polyps before they become cancerous. Biopsies may be taken for further analysis.

The analysis will determine if the polyps are noncancerous, precancerous or cancerous. Sometimes, it’s not possible to excise all of the polyps, and therefore, it may have to be removed surgically, which will include removing nearby cells and tissue around the polyp.

If the polyp is cancerous, nearby lymph nodes will also be biopsied to determine if the cancer has metastasized to other areas of the body.

  • CT Scan: This imaging technique provides cross-sectional images to check for cancer spread in surrounding organs.


There are multiple types of colorectal cancer, although some are rarer than others. The most common type of colon cancer is adenocarcinoma.

Adenocarcinoma is simply a cancer of the cells inside the colon or rectum.

Other rare tumour types include:

  • Carcinoid tumours begin inside hormone-producing cells in the intestines.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are a type of soft tissue sarcoma. They can be found anywhere in the GI tract, but it’s rare to find them in the colon. 

These tumours can also be different types of sarcoma, which start in blood vessels or connective tissue of the colon.

Lymphoma is a cancer of your lymphatic system. It usually starts in the lymph nodes but can begin in the colon or rectum.



If a colonoscopy reveals cancerous polyps, further analysis is carried out. Biopsied tissues are examined to determine if they are noncancerous, precancerous, or cancerous. Lymph nodes may also be biopsied to check for metastasis.


  • Blood Tests: Track substances like CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) which are elevated in some colon cancers.
  • CT Scan: Offers insight into cancer spread to adjacent organs.


Colorectal cancer progresses through four stages, with lower numbers indicating less spread. Early detection significantly improves treatment outcomes.

  • Stage I: Localized in the colon, highly curable with treatment.
  • Stage II & III: Outside the colon, potentially involving lymph nodes. 5-year survival rate is approximately 70% with treatment.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread to distant organs or other parts of the body. The survival rate is around 14%.


The AJCC employs the TMN system for staging, taking into account the primary tumor (T), regional lymph nodes (N), and distant metastasis (M). This detailed classification guides treatment decisions.

Navigating a colon cancer diagnosis may seem daunting, but there is hope. At Miskawaan Integrated Cancer Care, we offer holistic treatments that extend beyond traditional methods, targeting the tumor while preserving overall well-being.

Contact us today to embark on your path to healing and restoration. Remember, “The most effective cancer treatments target the tumor without damaging the rest of the body.”



At MICC, we offer advanced diagnostic tests, including Metavectum Tumour Therapy Test, Metavectum Predictive Diagnostic, and PanTum Detect Testing. These innovative technologies provide accurate insights into gene mutations, protein levels, and metabolic changes, enabling personalized treatment plans.

Our approach combines German and Thai expertise in complementary oncology and functional medicine, emphasizing natural interventions. With a global database of effective substances, our dedicated team of specialists is committed to maximizing outcomes while minimizing side effects.

Early detection sets the stage for precision treatments, supported by microbiome, nutrition, and lifestyle adjustments.


Ready to take the first step toward recovery? Schedule a consultation with us today to explore your personalized treatment options at MICC.