Treatments Statistics Causes Symptoms Diagnosis CANCER TYPES


Early-stage prostate cancer often conceals itself, revealing no immediate signs. This is why screening becomes paramount. Detecting potential concerns early significantly improves prognosis and treatment options.


Prostate cancer originates in the walnut-shaped prostate gland, nestled within the male reproductive system. While it can grow slowly, early detection is key. Surprisingly, initial stages rarely exhibit symptoms, underscoring the importance of proactive screening.


Prostate cancer originates in the walnut-shaped prostate gland, nestled within the male reproductive system. While it can grow slowly, early detection is key. Surprisingly, initial stages rarely exhibit symptoms, underscoring the importance of proactive screening.


Certain factors heighten the risk of prostate cancer, including obesity, family history, older age, and race. Our experts understand the nuances of each factor and incorporate them into personalized screening approaches.


Screening and testing are essential steps in detection. This may include:

  • PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) Test: Analyzing blood for PSA levels, which can indicate various conditions, including inflammation, enlargement, infection, or cancer. Measuring the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in your blood, this test provides valuable insights. Abnormalities in the prostate can influence PSA levels, potentially leading to further investigation.
  • DRE (Digital Rectal Examination): A physical examination to assess the prostate’s size, shape, and texture. A gentle yet pivotal examination involving a gloved and lubricated finger. This aids in evaluating the base of the prostate for any anomalies, guiding further steps.
  • Prostate Ultrasound and Biopsy: This procedure delves deeper, with urologists extracting minute samples of prostate tissue for closer scrutiny. The results, usually available within 72 hours, play a pivotal role in determining the next steps.


Incorporating state-of-the-art technology, we merge TRUS and MRI scans to generate detailed 3D images. This advanced approach aids in pinpointing areas that require further attention.

Following a diagnosis, tests may be conducted to determine the cancer’s stage:

  • Bone Scan
  • CT Scan
  • PET Scan

Remember, not all tests are applicable to every individual. Your doctor will select the most suitable based on your unique circumstances.

For men over 40, discussing prostate cancer screening with your doctor is recommended. Guidance will be provided on the screening process, considering individual risk factors.

Early intervention is especially crucial if prostate cancer runs in your family or if you possess other high-risk factors.


The cancer stage is classified using Roman numerals I to IV. Lower stages indicate localized cancer, while higher numbers suggest spread to other body parts.

Understanding the stage of prostate cancer is crucial in determining the most effective treatment plan. Our integrated approach combines clinical staging, pathologic staging, and the TNM system to create a comprehensive profile.

TNM Staging System

The TNM system was developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. It uses results from scans and tests to determine the following:

  • T(tumour) indicates the tumour’s location, size, and depth.
  • N(node) determines if the cancer cells have spread to the neighbouring lymph nodes.
  • M(metastasis) describes whether cancer cells have spread to other tissues or distant organs.

Doctors merge the TNM results with the Gleason score (grade) and PSA level to determine the stage grouping. This is then expressed in roman numerals from I to IV (most advanced) to determine the best treatment options.


Stage Grouping


Stage I

The cancer is usually on one side of the prostate. Cancer growth is very slow, and PSA levels are low. Also, cancer may not be detected during a Digital Rectal Exam (DRE). Moreover, there’s no lymph node involvement or metastasis.

Stage II

Cancer is still in the prostate. Has three substages:

  • Stage IIA: The tumour is present in one or both sides of the prostate. PSA levels are between 10-19, and Gleason’s score is ten or below
  • Stage IIB: The cancer is present in one or both sides of the prostate. PSA is below 20, and Gleason’s score is 7.
  • StageIIC: The tumour is on one or both sides of the prostate. PSA is below 20, Gleason’s score is 7-8.

Stage III

Cancer has advanced locally. The tumour is progressing and more likely to metastasize. The Gleason score and PSA levels are high

Substages include:

  • Stage IIIA: The tumour is on one or both sides. PSA is 20 or higher, and Gleason’s score is 8.
  • Stage IIIB: Cancer has metastasized outside the prostate to the neighbouring tissues. PSA can be any level and a Gleason score of 8.
  • Stage IIIC: This stage is the same as IIIB, but cancer hasn’t metastasized outside the prostate. Gleason’s score is 9 or 10.

Stage IV

Advanced prostate cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs. It consists of two substages.

  • Stage IVA: cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. But it hasn’t spread to other tissues.
  • StageIVB: The tumour has spread to other parts of the body like the bone or distant lymph nodes.



Acinar adenocarcinoma

It grows in the inner lining of the prostate. Most common. 

Ductal adenocarcinoma

Grows in the cells that border the ducts of the prostate gland.

Urothelial cancer

It starts in the bladder and reaches out to the entire prostate gland. 

Small cell prostate cancer

It’s a type of neuroendocrine cancer that’s made up of round cells.

Squamous cell prostate cancer

Grow faster than their neuroendocrine counterpart. This is because they are formed from the flat cells that cover the prostate. 



Prostate cancer types are generally classified as shown below. The information helps your doctor determine the type of cancer cells that triggered your cancer.



At MICC, we offer advanced diagnostic tests, including Metavectum Tumour Therapy Test, Metavectum Predictive Diagnostic, and PanTum Detect Testing. These innovative technologies provide accurate insights into gene mutations, protein levels, and metabolic changes, enabling personalized treatment plans.

Our approach combines German and Thai expertise in complementary oncology and functional medicine, emphasizing natural interventions. With a global database of effective substances, our dedicated team of specialists is committed to maximizing outcomes while minimizing side effects.

Early detection sets the stage for precision treatments, supported by microbiome, nutrition, and lifestyle adjustments.


Ready to take the first step toward recovery? Schedule a consultation with us today to explore your personalized treatment options at MICC.